CLIMATE CHANGE NEWS FOR APRIL 2018

CC NEWS FOR APRIL 2018
On Feb. 22 Yoshiguro Yugi posted a blog in MAHB (Millenial Alliance for Humanity and Biosphere, which originated at Stanford) titled, Fatal Errors of Humanity.  The author wrote:
The current ways of civilization cannot be continued much longer, because the basic concepts of human existence are wrong and humanity has been destroying her community and her only habitat. This essay is an attempt to point out the fundamental errors that will lead to the destruction of the ecosystem and civilization and to show a way to a peaceful world, by clearly conceptualizing what many people seem to be feeling but unable to formulate.”
“Humanity has a narrow window of time to choose a path for the future from two options. One is the continuation of the current ways. This will lead to further social conflicts, likely another global war, and probably to an end of civilization as we know it, if not to the end of Homo sapiens.”
“Humanity needs to understand, and correct, the cause of the current situation, namely, the lack of rational guiding principles, or constitution of humanity. Instead we have the following combination of irrationality, idealism, shortsightedness, egoism, brutality and ignorance:
– freedom of procreation,
– right to own whatever wealth one can acquire based on competition,
– promotion of consumption for economic growth,
– right to life for every human while animals and plants are viewed as consumable resources,
– idealized view of human nature that does not admit evil in the human mind,
– justification of killings and seizure of territory and properties by wining wars,
– perception of environment as a trash dump,
– disregard of the finiteness of space, resources, and capacities of the planetary systems,
– disregard of the principles of the biosphere,
– disregard of the conditions necessary for functional planetary systems.” 
NOTE: The author’s article is unusual, but very thought provoking. I don’t know what the third phrase from the end means, but I agree that we are living in an unsustainable way that will have grave consequences unless we change course before it is too late.  
Fiona Harvey on March 19 posted an article in The Guardian titled, Climate change soon to cause movement of 140m people, World Bank warns
Climate change will result in a massive movement of people inside countries and across borders, creating “hotspots” where tens of millions pour into already crowded slums, according to the World Bank.
More than 140 million people in just three regions of the developing world are likely to migrate within their native countries between now and 2050, the first report on the subject has found.
The World Bank examined three regions, which between them account for 55% of the developing world’s population. In sub-Saharan Africa, 86 million are expected to be internally displaced over the period; in south Asia, about 40 million; and in Latin America, 17 million.
Such flows of people could cause enormous disruption, threatening governance and economic and social development, but the World Bank cautioned that it was still possible to stave off the worst effects.
“Climate change-driven migration will be a reality, but it does not need to be a crisis, provided we take action now and act boldly,” said John Roome, a senior director for climate change at the World Bank group.”
“He laid out three key actions governments should take: first, to accelerate their reductions of greenhouse gases; second, for national governments to incorporate climate change migration into their national development planning; and third, to invest in further data and analysis for use in planning development.”
On March 20, 2018 Damian Carrington published an article in The Guardian titled, Can Climate Litigation Save the World?
He wrote, Courts are a new front line of climate action with cases against governments and oil firms spiralling, and while victories have so far been rare the pressure for change is growing.”
“Global moves to tackle climate change through lawsuits are poised to break new ground this week, as groups and individuals seek to hold governments and companies accountable for the damage they are causing.
On Tuesday, action by 12 UK citizens reaches the high court for the first time, while on Wednesday in San Francisco, the science of climate change will effectively be on trial at a key moment in a lawsuit.
The litigation represents a new front of climate action, with citizens aiming to force stronger moves to cut carbon emissions, and win damages to pay the costs of dealing with the impacts of warming.”
“They are inspired by momentous cases from the past, from the defeat of big tobacco to the racial desegregation of schools in the US. Big oil is fighting back hard, but though victories have been rare to date wins are more likely in future, as legal experts say the attitudes of judges often shift with the times.
A flurry of billion-dollar cases against fossil fuel companies brought by New York city and communities in California over the rising seas has pushed climate litigation into the limelight. But cases are being brought across the globe, with more than 1,000 suits now logged by the Sabin Center for Climate Change Law at Columbia law school in New York.”
On March 22 Ethanol Producer Magazine publised andd article titled, Toyota reveals world-first flexible fuel hybrid prototype.It said, 
A prototype of the world’s first hybrid flexible-fuel vehicle (hybrid FFV), debuted in an event Toyota recently held in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Stakeholders including the state government, universities, and the sugarcane association (the Sugarcane Industry Union: UNICA) attended the event. The prototype is the combination of a flexible-fuel vehicle (FFV) that can be powered by both gasoline and alternative fuels such as ethanol, and Toyota’s famous hybrid system which combines a combustion engine and an electrical powertrain.”
“The development of hybrid FFV represents one of Toyota’s efforts to achieve its “Environmental Challenge 2050” where it challenges itself to reduce vehicle CO2 emissions by 90 percent in comparison with 2010 levels, by 2050. Another objective of the Environmental Challenge is to completely eliminate CO2 emissions from the vehicle lifecycle, including materials, parts and manufacturing. In line with that goal, Toyota also targets to have more than 5.5 million electrified vehicles in its global new vehicle sales by 2030.”
On March 22 Nina Chestney Poster an article in Reuters titled, Global emissions hit record high in 2017.  She wrote,
Global energy-related carbon emissions rose to a historic high of 32.5 gigatons last year, after three years of being flat, due to higher energy demand and the slowing of energy efficiency improvements, the International Energy Agency (IEA) said.  
Global energy demand rose by 2.1 percent last year to 14,050 million tonnes of oil equivalent, more than twice the previous year’s rate, boosted by strong economic growth, according to preliminary estimates from the IEA.  Energy demand rose by 0.9 percent in 2016 and 0.9 percent on average over the previous five years.
Over 70 percent of global energy demand growth was met by oil, natural gas and coal, while renewables accounted for almost all of the rest, the IEA said in a report.”
NOTE: Scientists have warned that we must begin soon to drastically reducing CO2 emissions, yet they are increasing.  This is not smart.
Onn March 23 PBS Frontline published a report by Katie Worth titled. Mailings to Teachers Highlight a Political Fight over Climate Change in the Classroom.
She wrote, “Last spring across the nation science teachers began to receive unsolicited classroom materials from a liberterian group that rejects the scientific consensus on climate change.
This spring some of the same teachers are opening packages containing very different materials: A book written by a Cornell University affiliate called “The Teacher Friendly Guide to Climate Change,” which embraces the prevailing science, explains the phenomenon in detail and includes information on how to teach the subject to children.”
“Last year’s mailings were sent out by the Heartland Institute, an Illinois-based think tank that holds an annual conference that has become a pilgrimage for those who reject the overwhelming findings of the scientific community that humans are causing earth’s climate to change. The packages contain pamphlets a book titled “Why Scientists Disagree about Global Warming.”  A spokesman for the group said it sent out more than 350,000 packages to K-12 and college-level science teachers last year.”
On March 28 Climate Home News published an article by Zak Derler titled, UN Security Council makes ‘historic’ warning on climate threat to Somalia.
He wrote The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) has formally recognised climate change as a destabilising factor in Somalia.
In a resolution adopted on Tuesday as part of a renewed mandate for assistance and peacekeeping in the country, the council noted “the adverse effects of climate change, ecological changes and natural disasters among other factors on the stability of Somalia, including through drought, desertification, land degradation, and food insecurity”.
The council emphasised the need for peacekeepers and governments working in Somalia to be better prepared to cope with complications arising from climate impacts.
The links between climate change and insecurity have been emerging on the ground and in the halls of diplomacy.”

The following items are from the Environmental and Energy Study Institute (EESI), Carol Werner, Executive Director. Past issues of its newsletter are posted on its website under “publications”
 at http://www.eesi.org/publications/Newsletters/CCNews/ccnews.htm
 
EESI’s newsletter is intended for all interested parties, particularly the policymaker community. 
Final Omnibus Budget Bill Preserves Climate Programs, Boosts Scientific Research
On March 22, the House passed a $1.3 trillion omnibus spending bill to fund the government through September 2018. The Senate followed suit late that night ahead of a March 23 deadline to avoid a government shutdown. The massive bill largely rebuked the President’s budget proposal, which contained deep cuts and numerous eliminations for federal climate, energy, and environmental programs. Instead, the bill either maintained or increased funding levels for these programs. EPA’s $8.1 billion overall budget remained stable, despite the White House’s demand to cut it by one-third. The Department of Energy saw increases to its research and energy efficiency programs, including the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) and the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), both of which were targeted for cuts by the administration. NOAA’s major weather and polar observation satellite programs received full funding, while NASA’s ongoing earth science initiatives were also spared the chopping block. Numerous “poison pill riders” were left out of the final bill, including a provision that would have prohibited funding to enforce a Bureau of Land Management methane emission reduction rule.
For more information see:
Energy Secretary Pledges to Support Research Program Trump Wants to End
Secretary of Energy Rick Perry defended his agency’s $30 billion budget and the $300 million Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) program at a March 20 Senate committee hearing. ARPA-E focuses on funding promising early-stage energy technologies that are deemed too risky for private investment. The Trump administration wanted to slash funding for the program again this year, claiming the private sector would be a better judge of what technologies should be funded. At the hearing, Perry pledged to back the program, “If this Congress … supports the funding of that, it will be operated in a way that you will be most pleased with.” During a prior appearance at a major ARPA-E summit, Perry praised the program’s “power of innovation” and named it a “window into our future.” ARPA-E enjoys bipartisan support in Congress, including from the chair and ranking members of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. Congress’ recently issued budget bill increased funding for ARPA-E, despite the White House’s proposal to eliminate it.
For more information see:
pastedGraphic.pdfReport Explores Unique Climate Threats to Alaskans
The Alaska Department of Health and Social Services (DHSS) published a report discussing the health impacts of climate change on Alaskans. The DHSS report emphasized two themes: food access and storage and vulnerability to mental and emotional stress. According to the report, as temperatures rise, it becomes more difficult to store food and thus the risks of foodborne illnesses increase, especially in the native communities where people hunt for wild food. As climate change begins to limit access to wild foods and traditional storage methods (like permafrost cellars), Alaskans are starting to rely on store-bought food, which is not as nutritious and tends to be more expensive. Solastalgia, a distress caused by rapid environmental change in people’s communities, could lead to mental health issues. Lead author Sarah Yoder said, “As people’s way of life changes and as anxiety about how things around the community might change … that can all impact their general feelings of well-being.” Gov. Bill Walker (I) signed an administrative order in the fall of 2017 to create an Alaska Climate Change Strategy and other entities to address these challenges.
For more information see:
pastedGraphic_1.pdfU.S. District Judge Requests Climate Science Tutorial from Litigants 
On March 22, the U.S. District Court for Northern California heard a lawsuit that the cities of San Francisco and Oakland filed against oil companies, including Chevron and Exxon, over the firms’ liability for damages stemming from greenhouse gas emissions. The suit argues that the industry knew about the likely consequences of fossil fuel use decades ago, but actively fought regulations and spread false information about scientific findings. Presiding Judge William Alsup ordered a five-hour tutorial on climate change science at the hearing. Each side would have 120 minutes to talk about climate science history and the state of today’s best available climate science. The litigants have been asked to answer a series of questions produced by Alsup, such as, “What are the main sources of heat that account for the incremental rise in temperature on Earth?” Alsup is known for asking litigants to tutor him on technical issues, but legal experts claim that such a hearing on climate change is novel. Both sides regard the tutorial as an opportunity to argue for their claims.
For more information see:
pastedGraphic_2.pdfStudy: American Beef Consumers Responsible for Significant Portion of Diet-Related Greenhouse Gas Emissions
A new study from the University of Michigan and Tulane University found that 20 percent of American eaters, whose diets were heavily reliant on beef, were responsible for nearly half of diet-related greenhouse gas emissions. If this group decreased its beef consumption and calorie intake, they could achieve 10 percent of the emissions reductions needed for the United States to meet its goals under the Paris Climate Agreement. When diets were ranked by their emissions, the study found that the top 20 percent were responsible for eight times more emissions than the lowest 20 percent, with beef consumption accounting for 72 percent of the gap. This was the first study to look at what individual people actually consumed, rather than measuring how food commodities move through the broader economy. The study’s researchers constructed a database of the environmental impacts of producing 300 commonly eaten foods and connected this to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a survey that includes self-reported dietary data for more than 16,000 Americans.
For more information see:
NOTE: This study supports the idea that people who want to reduce their family’s carbon footprint should greatly reduce their consumption of beef.  Producing beef not only requires a lot of feed (and water), but cattle make a lot of methane, a powerful greenhouse gas, that goes from their digestive system into the atmosphere. 
pastedGraphic_3.pdfClimate Change Putting a Damper on Outdoor Ice Rinks 
Backyard ice rinks are a long-standing tradition in Canada, where winter sports are deeply embedded in the culture. However, climate change has led to rapid warming in the Northern Hemisphere, making it increasingly difficult to maintain a backyard rink and drastically shortening the outdoor skating season. Robert McLeman of Wilfrid Laurier University noted a temperature of 23 degrees Fahrenheit or lower is necessary to maintain a good skating surface. “Any warmer than that and the rink is no longer skateable. And that’s sort of on the horizon for us in the second half of the 21st century,” he said. Researchers with Rink Watch, a citizen science project gathering data from more than 1,500 backyard rinks, predicts the number of skating days in Toronto will decline by 34 percent by 2090. His colleague Colin Robertson said, “The fact that this could be taken away and is tied to climate has been a real eye-opener.” The changing conditions have led everyone from skating enthusiasts to the National Hockey League to give renewed consideration to global warming.
For more information see:
NOTE: The path going to my front door, which is on the south side of the house, becomes ice-free much sooner than my driveway.  The path is paved with dark paving stones while the driveway is nearly white.  The reason is simple.  Once some of the paving stones appear from beneath the snow, they are heated more by the sun that the concrete is.  The replacement of sea ice in the Arctic by more heat-absorbing deep blue sea is a major reason why the Arctic is warming twice as fast as the global average.
pastedGraphic_4.pdfStudy: Reducing Carbon Emissions Could Save 150 Million Lives by 2100
According to a new study appearing in Nature Climate Change, reducing carbon emissions could prevent 150 million premature deaths across the globe. The effect would mostly be felt in Asian countries with polluted air – 13 million lives could be saved in large Indian cities alone. Although the Clean Air Act has vastly improved air quality in the United States, over 330,000 lives could be saved in major American cities if air quality conditions were to improve further. However, these outcomes would only be possible if emissions were reduced enough to cap global temperature rise to less than 3 degrees Fahrenheit by the end of the century which, although lower than the target set by the Paris Climate Agreement, is still unlikely to be achieved. The study projected that if governments fail to work towards zero emissions by 2100, there would be about 7 million deaths per year related to air pollution. Drew Shindell, a professor at Duke University and the study’s lead author, said, “There’s got to be a significant amount of progress within the 2020s or it’s too late.”
For more information see:
pastedGraphic_5.pdfEPA Distributes Official Talking Points Undercutting the Causes of Anthropogenic Climate Change
A series of eight “talking points” distributed by EPA’s Office of Public Affairs to regional staffers instructed them to play up uncertainties in the relationship between human activity and climate change. The phrasing of the points hewed closely to past statements made by EPA Administrator Scott Pruitt meant to diminish climate science. The memo containing the points was obtained and published by the press. The memo stated, “The ability to measure with precision the degree and extent of [climate change’s] impact, and what to do about it, are subject to continuing debate and dialogue.” The memo added that “clear gaps remain including our understanding of the role of human activity and what we can do about [climate change].” These statements directly conflict with the vast majority of climate scientists, including those within the federal government who have written it is “extremely likely” that humans have been the primary cause of climate change since the mid-20th century.
For more information see:
pastedGraphic_6.pdfU.S. District Court Rules against Fossil Fuel Extraction Plans
On March 23, a U.S. District Court in Montana ruled against an Interior Department plan to open over 15 million acres of public land and mineral rights to fossil fuel extraction, claiming that the government did not sufficiently consider how this plan would affect the climate and environment. The case was filed in 2016 by environmental groups with the plaintiffs arguing that the fossil fuel development plans violated the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) because they did not address the damages that coal, oil, and gas would cause to the environment. The area under dispute in Montana and Wyoming’s Powder River Basin contains around 10.2 billion tons of coal and the potential for 18,000 new oil and gas wells. This decision comes after multiple others that were ruled in favor of the plaintiffs, due to the defendants’ lack of consideration for the environmental impacts of their plans. Interior’s Office of the Solicitor said they would review the court’s decision, but declined to say if they would file an appeal.
For more information see:
California Ready to Retaliate if Trump Administration Rolls Back Vehicle Emission Standards
With EPA poised to relax rules limiting vehicle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that the administration views as too aggressive, California is set to retaliate by decoupling the state’s rules from federal standards. EPA’s anticipated action would initiate a long-term process to rewrite regulations implemented under the Obama administration to dramatically reduce carbon emissions from cars and light trucks. California officials have said they would revoke the state’s “deemed to comply” rule, which says that car producers abiding by EPA’s tailpipe GHG regulations automatically fulfill California’s standards as well. Twelve additional states follow all or part of California’s vehicle emission standards. Altogether, the 13 states make up a third of the U.S. auto market. California is already committed to its standards through 2025 and is currently developing even stricter standards through 2030. Automakers, who at first lobbied the current administration for revising the vehicle emission rules, are now expressing concern over the growing rift between Sacramento and Washington. Some companies are trying to convince federal officials to avoid lowering the requirements to the point that California would break away entirely.
For more information see:
Supporters and Opponents of Clean Power Plan Convene in Final Meeting to Discuss Repeal
In Wyoming, at the last of four meetings regarding the repeal of the Clean Power Plan (CPP), supporters discussed the well-known effects of climate change, the benefits of the CPP, and the negative impacts of the coal industry. Meanwhile, the regulation’s opponents pointed out coal’s history of regional employment and affordable electricity, arguing that some regions in Wyoming cannot afford to abandon the coal industry. State economists predicted a 25 to 50 percent drop in Wyoming coal production, representing a downturn in employment, if the CPP were to be implemented. Even though the CPP never took force, coal production decreased by about 25 percent from 2015-2017 due to competition from natural gas-fired electricity. However, community members at the meeting described the impacts of continued coal use, such as miscarriages and other health issues attributed to poor air and water quality. Other speakers explained that the CPP would not call for the immediate elimination of coal use, but rather a gradual adjustment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in a manner suitable for Wyoming.
For more information see:
pastedGraphic_7.pdfAs Snowpack Declines, Ski Resorts Find New Methods to Save Winter
Although recent weather has been great for skiers and snowboarders, overall trends show a 30 percent decline in North America’s snowpack in the past century. By 2050, winter sport seasons for ski resorts will be cut in half. The decline in snow is significant beyond recreation, since it also supplies drinking water and irrigates farms. Some skiing regions in the western United States renowned for their “fluffy powder” will likely see denser snow in the future. Resorts are having to rely more frequently on snowmaking machines due to unpredictable snowfall, though innovations have led to greater automation and require less electricity and water than in the past. High winds and snowstorms can also lead to power outages and infrastructure damage. While resort operators have expressed concern about climate change, the industry still has a large carbon footprint. Visit Salt Lake CEO Scott Beck said, “The ski industry has not found a good narrative for our own responsibility for driving demand.”
For more information see:
pastedGraphic_8.pdfIEA Report Shows Global Carbon Emissions Rose in 2017
The International Energy Agency’s (IEA) annual survey of global carbon levels showed an overall increase in CO2 emissions a year after the signing of the Paris Climate Agreement. In 2017, energy-related emissions increased by 1.4 percent, equivalent to adding 170 million cars to the road. The surge in carbon emissions came primarily from Asia and Europe, while the United States achieved the steepest year-over-year decline in CO2 levels of any advanced economy. IEA analysts were not surprised by these findings, citing a stronger global economy coupled with lower energy prices as cause for the global CO2 increase. Dan Klein, head of global coal research at S&P Global said, “If it weren’t for the increase in overall [electricity] demand, the biggest story would have been the increase in renewables.” Chinese wind and solar output grew by 21 and 38 percent respectively in 2017, while the United States saw a surge in renewables and a decrease in electricity demand.
For more information see:
Study: Sahara Desert’s Expansion Fueled by Climate Change
New research published in the Journal of Climate has found that the Sahara Desert is growing. The desert’s southern advance into Sudan and Chad is drying out vegetation and leaving farmland barren. The expansion has been partly fueled by a lack of rain, which is unusual for Africa’s summer. Although the study only covered the Sahara, the authors said that their findings suggest other hot deserts are likely expanding due to the effects of climate change on weather circulation patterns. The study examined data from 1920 to 2013, including satellite data from the past three decades. The researchers found that in the 1960s, one of these cycles, the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), switched from a phase that delivered more rain to areas around the Sahara to one that facilitated drier conditions. One of the most intense droughts of the 20th century was later attributed to this shift. Lake Chad is among the water resources being depleted due to the encroachment of drier conditions.
For more information see:
NOTE: What started out as the civil war in Syria, which now includes several other countries, including Russia, Iran and the U.S., was preceded by four years of drought putting farmers out of work.  Increasing conflicts over food and water have been cited by the U.S. Department of Defense as an effect of climate change.
EPA Administrator’s Swift Retreat from Regulations May Not Hold Up
Legal experts are predicting that EPA Administrator Scott Pruitt’s hasty rollback of federal regulations is unlikely to stand up to court challenges. So far, six of Pruitt’s actions to delay or eliminate environmental regulations established under the Obama administration have been struck down in court. EPA has also backed away from efforts to delay smog regulations and withdraw mercury pollution limits. The courts have cited a lack of appropriate justification, missed deadlines to enact policies, and the flaunting of clear legal statutes among the reasons for the reversals. In EPA’s proposed rollback of vehicle emission standards, independent analysts found a lack of legal, scientific, and technical data to defend the action, meaning the request filed would be unlikely to convince a judge to allow the repeal. Former EPA policy analyst James McCargar said, “I just don’t see how [EPA provides] anything that gives a technical justification to undo the rule. The EPA has just never done anything like this.”
For more information see:
pastedGraphic_9.pdfClouds Over Pruitt Raise Stakes for EPA Deputy’s Nomination
On April 12, the Senate confirmed President Trump’s nominee for deputy administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency. The contentious nominee, Andrew Wheeler, is a former coal lobbyist. The confirmation vote passed 53-45, with all Republicans and three Democrats (Sens. Donnelly (IN), Heitkamp (ND), and Manchin (WV) voting in favor. The trio of Democrats are facing reelection in states that lean heavily Republican. Democratic senators opposed to Wheeler argued that he has not been thoroughly vetted to hold the second-most senior position at the agency. Wheeler has gotten extra attention due to the uncertainty surrounding EPA Administrator Scott Pruitt’s job security. Pruitt has come under fire from White House officials and legislators for a string of ethics and spending controversies. Sen. Ben Cardin (D-MD) said, “I think it would be best advised to hold off on [the Wheeler] vote to see if we are voting on the acting administrator or the deputy administrator.” However, Sen. Cardin admitted that Democrats had few options available to them to delay the confirmation vote.
For more information see:
pastedGraphic_10.pdfStudy: Marine Heatwaves Are Lasting Longer, Occurring More Frequently
A new dataset indicates that marine heatwaves have become 34 percent more likely and 17 percent longer in duration since 1925. Overall, the number of days in a year featuring a marine heatwave has increased by 54 percent during that span. The study’s lead author, Eric Oliver of Dalhousie University, said, “We can expect a continued global increase in marine heatwaves in future, with important implications for marine biodiversity.” The researchers classified a heat wave as an event lasting for at least five days where daily ocean temperatures exceeded the 90th percentile of what is considered “very warm” for that time of year. The study is the first to quantify long-term changes in the frequency and length of marine heatwaves as the climate warms. Marine heatwaves have been behind mass coral bleaching events, the loss of carbon stores like seagrass meadows, mass die-offs of marine species, and changes to the range and structure of ecosystems. The heat waves can also significantly affect commercial fisheries.
For more information see:
Scientific Studies Conclude Key Ocean Current Has Changed, Potentially Affecting Weather Patterns
According to new research appearing in the journal Nature, the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) has declined in strength by 15 percent since the mid-20th century. The record-low is problematic, since the AMOC ferries warm water from the equator into the north Atlantic, while pushing cold water back into the deep ocean. This ocean circulation contributes to Western Europe’s temperate weather and is crucial for the health of New England fisheries. Researchers point to Greenland’s melting ice sheets as part of the reason for the AMOC disruption. Stefan Rahmstorf of the Potsdam Institute said the disruption is “something that climate models have predicted for a long time, but we weren’t sure it was really happening. I think it is happening. And I think it’s bad news.” A second study found that the AMOC has slowed down over the past 150 years and is now the weakest it’s been in more than a millennium. Although the papers differ in their attribution of the problem (natural versus anthropogenic causes), both concluded that the circulation has weakened.
For more information see:
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New Castle County Congregations of Delaware Interfaith Power and Light